By Eduard A. Tropp, Viktor Ya. Frenkel, Artur D. Chernin, Alexander Dron, Michael Burov

ISBN-10: 0521025885

ISBN-13: 9780521025881

ISBN-10: 0521384702

ISBN-13: 9780521384704

Our universe might be defined mathematically through an easy version constructed in 1922 at Petrograd (St. Petersburg) by means of Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925). with no the good thing about observational proof, Friedmann envisioned that the full universe may extend and evolve with time. This awesome prediction used to be proven seven years later by way of Edwin Hubble. Its originator, regrettably did not reside to have fun with this triumph. This shiny biography of a great scientist units his lifestyles and paintings opposed to a large backdrop of the background of cosmological reports and its significant gamers, resembling Einstein and others. The publication is a window on Friedmann's institution and college years, army provider, and educating and learn in the course of a seminal interval of Soviet background. The authors comprise distinct archival fabric, akin to Friedmann's letters from the Russian entrance, in addition to modern files and memories of associates. there's a targeted remedy of his paintings in theoretical cosmology (1922-1924), set within the context of the association of Soviet technology on the time.

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Vacuum of the electroweak theory behaves in many ways like a superconductor and so does the vacuum of chromodynamics, though in a different way. The electroweak theory and chromodynamics represent together our present understanding of the dynamics at the level of the fundamental particles. They globally constitute what is called the 'Standard Model'. The vacuum is defined as the lowest energy state of a system and has to be handled that way. Within our description of the dynamics it has a structure for which we find analogies in condensed matter physics.

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Alexander A. Friedmann: The man who made the Universe expand by Eduard A. Tropp, Viktor Ya. Frenkel, Artur D. Chernin, Alexander Dron, Michael Burov


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