By William N. Venables, David M. Smith
This educational handbook offers a finished creation to R, a software program package deal for statistical computing and photographs. R helps quite a lot of statistical options and is well extensible through user-defined services. certainly one of R's strengths is the convenience with which publication-quality plots should be produced in a wide selection of codecs. it is a published variation of the educational documentation from the R distribution, with extra examples, notes and corrections. it's in line with R model 2.9.0, published April 2009. R is unfastened software program, allotted lower than the phrases of the GNU common Public License (GPL). it may be used with GNU/Linux, Unix and Microsoft home windows. the entire cash raised from the sale of this ebook helps the advance of loose software program and documentation.
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Additional info for An Introduction to R
The symbols which occur in the body of a function can be divided into three classes; formal parameters, local variables and free variables. The formal parameters of a function are those occurring in the argument list of the function. Their values are determined by the process of binding the actual function arguments to the formal parameters. Local Chapter 10: Writing your own functions 49 variables are those whose values are determined by the evaluation of expressions in the body of the functions.
1 Defining statistical models; formulae The template for a statistical model is a linear regression model with independent, homoscedastic errors p yi = βj xij + ei , ei ∼ NID(0, σ 2 ), i = 1, . . , n j=0 In matrix terms this would be written y = Xβ + e where the y is the response vector, X is the model matrix or design matrix and has columns x0 , x1 , . . , xp , the determining variables. Very often x0 will be a column of ones defining an intercept term. Examples Before giving a formal specification, a few examples may usefully set the picture.
A data frame may for many purposes be regarded as a matrix with columns possibly of differing modes and attributes. It may be displayed in matrix form, and its rows and columns extracted using matrix indexing conventions. table() function to read an entire data frame from an external file. This is discussed further in Chapter 7 [Reading data from files], page 32. 2 attach() and detach() The $ notation, such as accountants$home, for list components is not always very convenient. A useful facility would be somehow to make the components of a list or data frame temporarily visible as variables under their component name, without the need to quote the list name explicitly each time.
An Introduction to R by William N. Venables, David M. Smith